Sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal neoplasms. They can be grouped into 2 general categories, soft tissue sarcoma and primary bone sarcoma, which have different staging and treatment approaches. This review includes a discussion of both soft tissue sarcomas (malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, angiosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, aggressive fibromatosis or desmoid tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, and primary alveolar soft-part sarcoma) and primary bone sarcomas (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, giant cell tumor, and chondrosarcoma). The 3 most important prognostic variables are grade, size, and location of the primary tumor. The approach to a patient with a sarcoma begins with a biopsy that obtains adequate tissue for diagnosis without interfering with subsequent optimal definitive surgery. Subsequent treatment depends on the specific type of sarcoma. Because sarcomas are relatively uncommon yet comprise a wide variety of different entities, evaluation by oncology teams who have expertise in the field is recommended. Treatment and follow-up guidelines have been published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (www.nccn.org).