Saracatinib synergizes with enzalutamide to downregulate AR activity in CRPC

Ralph E White, Maxwell Bannister, Abderrahman Day, Hannah E Bergom, Victor M Tan, Justin Hwang, Hai Dang Nguyen, Justin M Drake

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1 Scopus citations


Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most diagnosed non-skin cancer amongst the American male population. Treatment for localized prostate cancer consists of androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs), which typically inhibit androgen production and the androgen receptor (AR). Though initially effective, a subset of patients will develop resistance to ADTs and the tumors will transition to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Second generation hormonal therapies such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide are typically given to men with CRPC. However, these treatments are not curative and typically prolong survival only by a few months. Several resistance mechanisms contribute to this lack of efficacy such as the emergence of AR mutations, AR amplification, lineage plasticity, AR splice variants (AR-Vs) and increased kinase signaling. Having identified SRC kinase as a key tyrosine kinase enriched in CRPC patient tumors from our previous work, we evaluated whether inhibition of SRC kinase synergizes with enzalutamide or chemotherapy in several prostate cancer cell lines expressing variable AR isoforms. We observed robust synergy between the SRC kinase inhibitor, saracatinib, and enzalutamide, in the AR-FL+/AR-V+ CRPC cell lines, LNCaP95 and 22Rv1. We also observed that saracatinib significantly decreases AR Y534 phosphorylation, a key SRC kinase substrate residue, on AR-FL and AR-Vs, along with the AR regulome, supporting key mechanisms of synergy with enzalutamide. Lastly, we also found that the saracatinib-enzalutamide combination reduced DNA replication compared to the saracatinib-docetaxel combination, resulting in marked increased apoptosis. By elucidating this combination strategy, we provide pre-clinical data that suggests combining SRC kinase inhibitors with enzalutamide in select patients that express both AR-FL and AR-Vs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1210487
Pages (from-to)1210487
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 White, Bannister, Day, Bergom, Tan, Hwang, Dang Nguyen and Drake.


  • androgen receptor
  • enzalutamide
  • phosphorylation
  • prostate cancer
  • SRC kinase inhibitor
  • Synergy

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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