Sampling-oscilloscope-type circuitry has been interfaced with an s.e.m., which allows the resolution of fast voltage waveforms on devices up to gigahertz repetition frequencies. The sampling is performed by 100 ps-wide beam pulses, at a maximum sampling rate of 1 MHz. Voltage contrast linearisation has a resolution of 100 mV at an average current of 10-11 A for a 12·5 kV beam and a settling time of 30 ms.
- Electron microscopes
- Voltage measurements