Sample types, collection, and transport for influenza A viruses of swine

Marie R. Culhane, Susan E. Detmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Detection of influenza A virus (IAV), viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibodies in swine is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or hemagglutination inhibition tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the age of swine that are being tested; oral fluids can be successfully collected from weaned pigs usually greater than 3 weeks of age, whereas nasal swabs should be collected from suckling pigs in the first weeks of life. This chapter outlines the collection of different specimen types and procedures for proper specimen handling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-263
Number of pages5
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibody detection
  • Diagnostics
  • Sample processing
  • Specimen collection
  • Swine influenza
  • Virus detection


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