Objective To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. Methods 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sight-hound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. Results 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups’ saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Conclusions and clinical relevance Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work was self-funded by the corresponding author. Partial funding for E.F. was provided by the Office of the Director, National Institute of Health (NIH) under award number K01OD019912. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors thank Dr. Kevin Stepaniuk for helping with sample collection. The authors also thank the Center for Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics at the University of Minnesota for assistance with data generation and analysis, and maintenance of required instrumentation.
© 2018 Torres et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.