Salivary measures of stress and immunity in police officers engaged in simulated critical incident scenarios

Maureen Groer, Randall Murphy, William Bunnell, Kristin Salomon, Jeanne Van Eepoel, Blake Rankin, Kristi White, Cathy Bykowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE:: This research investigated the effects of a critical incident lethal force scenario on a panel of salivary biomarkers, measured at baseline and then at 10 and 30 minutes postscenario, in 141 law enforcement volunteer officers. METHODS:: Officers were randomly assigned to two virtual reality scenarios. One scenario was brief and involved a police officer chasing a suspect on a motorcycle, confronting the suspect who draws a gun and shoots the police officer. The other scenario involved a lengthy chase by the police officer through a workplace of an armed perpetrator ultimately engaging in gunfire with the police officer. Saliva was analyzed for cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), interleukin-6, and alpha-amylase concentrations. RESULTS:: The "workplace" scenario produced the largest responses in biomarkers, with significant rises in cortisol, interleukin-6, alpha-amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin A. These data suggest that virtual reality can produce stress and immune effects. CONCLUSIONS:: This research suggests that virtual reality scenarios produce physiologic stress responses, mimicking occupational stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)595-602
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of occupational and environmental medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2010

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