Salivary dysfunction associated with systemic diseases: systematic review and clinical management recommendations

Inger von Bültzingslöwen, Thomas P. Sollecito, Philip C. Fox, Troy Daniels, Roland Jonsson, Peter B. Lockhart, David Wray, Michael T. Brennan, Marco Carrozzo, Beatrice Gandera, Takashi Fujibayashi, Mahvash Navazesh, Nelson L. Rhodus, Morten Schiødt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

154 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify systemic diseases associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia and develop evidence-based management recommendations for hyposalivation/xerostomia. Study design: Literature searches covered the English language medical literature from 1966 to 2005. An evidence-based review process was applied to management studies published from 2002 to 2005. Results: Several systemic diseases were identified. From studies published 2002 to 2005, 15 were identified as high-quality studies and were used to support management recommendations: pilocarpine and cevimeline are recommended for treating hyposalivation and xerostomia in primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). IFN-α lozenges may enhance saliva flow in primary SS patients. Anti-TNF-α agents, such as infliximab or etanercept, are not recommended to treat hyposalivation in SS. Dehydroepiandrosterone is not recommended to relieve hyposalivation or xerostomia in primary SS. There was not enough evidence to support any recommendations for the use of local stimulants, lubricants, and protectants for hyposalivation/xerostomia. However, professional judgment and patient preferences may support the use of a specific product for an individual patient. Conclusions: These evidence-based management recommendations should guide the clinician's management decisions for patients with salivary dysfunction related to systemic disease. Future treatment strategies may include new formulations of existing drugs, e.g., local application of pilocarpine. Recent discoveries on gene expression and a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of SS may open new treatment options in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S57.e1-S57.e15
JournalOral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology
Issue numberSUPPL.
StatePublished - Mar 2007


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