Safety and efficacy of nightly nitrofurantoin as prophylaxis in dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections: 13 cases (2015-2021)

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Objectives: To report the protocol, efficacy and adverse events in dogs receiving nightly nitrofurantoin therapy as antimicrobial prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case series of dogs prescribed nitrofurantoin as prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections. Data on urological history, diagnostic investigation, protocol, adverse events and efficacy (through serial urine cultures) were extracted from medical records. Results: Thirteen dogs were included. Before therapy, dogs had a median of 3 (range 3 to 7) positive urine cultures in the past year. In all but one dog, standard antimicrobial therapy was given before starting the nightly nitrofurantoin. The nightly nitrofurantoin was then prescribed at a median dose of 4.1 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for a median of 166 days (range 44 to 1740). The median infection-free interval on therapy was 268 days (95% confidence interval: 165 to undefined). Eight dogs had no positive urine cultures while on therapy. Of these, five (three which discontinued and two which remained on nitrofurantoin) had no return of clinical signs or bacteriuria at time of last follow-up evaluation or death, and three had suspected or confirmed bacteriuria 10 to 70 days after discontinuation. Five dogs developed bacteriuria on therapy, four of which were nitrofurantoin-resistant Proteus spp. Most other adverse events were minor; none were considered likely caused by the drug on causality assessment. Clinical Significance: Based on this small study group, nightly nitrofurantoin appears well tolerated and might be efficacious prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs. Infection with nitrofurantoin-resistant Proteus spp. was a common reason for treatment failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-484
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Small Animal Practice
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Partial support for EF was provided by a National Institutes of Health Office of Research Infrastructure Programs K01 Mentored Research Scientist Development Award (K01‐OD019912).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Journal of Small Animal Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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