Spot 14 (S14) is a protein whosem RNA is rapidly up-regulated by lipogenic stimuli including thyroid hormone and a high-carbohydrate diet. Previous investigation into the role of S14 suggested that it is involved in de novo lipogenesis. Knockout of the gene in mice has given further support to this hypothesis. The lack of S14 in different tissues resulted in varying phenotypic effects. In the lactating mammary gland, levels of lipogenesis, specifically the production of medium chain fatty acids, were decreased, whereas hepatic lipogenesis was not decreased. In fact, hepatic lipogenesis was increased, and the increase may be due to compensation by a paralog of S14 called S14-R. S14-R is expressed in the liver but not the mammary gland. Importantly, S14 knockout mice did not have reduced levels of lipogenic enzymes, implying that it does not affect the transcriptional rate of those enzymes. Instead, S14 may act in the cytoplasm to affect lipogenesis.
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