S100A4 accelerates tumorigenesis and invasion of human prostate cancer through the transcriptional regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9

Mohammad Saleem, Mee Hyang Kweon, Jeremy James Johnson, Vaqar Mustafa Adhami, Irina Elcheva, Naghma Khan, Bilal Bin Hafeez, Kumar M.R. Bhat, Sami Sarfaraz, Shannon Reagan-Shaw, Vladimir S. Spiegelman, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Hasan Mukhtar

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164 Scopus citations

Abstract

We previously showed that the calcium-binding protein S100A4 is overexpressed during the progression of prostate cancer (CaP) in humans and in the TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mouse model. We tested a hypothesis that the S100A4 gene plays a role in the invasiveness of human CaP and may be associated with its metastatic spread. We observed that siRNA-mediated suppression of the S100A4 gene significantly reduced the proliferative and invasive capability of the highly invasive CaP cells PC-3. We evaluated the mechanism through which the S100A4 gene controls invasiveness of cells by using a macroarray containing 96 well characterized metastatic genes. We found that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1) were highly responsive to S100A4 gene suppression. Furthermore, S100A4 suppression significantly reduced the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. By employing an MMP-9-promoter reporter, we observed a significant reduction in the transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene in S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells. Cells overexpressing the S100A4 gene (when transfected with pcDNA3.1-S100A4 plasmid) also significantly expressed MMP-9 and TIMP-1 genes with increased proteolytic activity of MMP-9 concomitant to increased transcriptional activation of the MMP-9 gene. S100A4-siRNA-transfected cells exhibited a reduced rate of tumor growth under in vivo conditions. Our data demonstrate that the S100A4 gene controls the invasive potential of human CaP cells through regulation of MMP-9 and that this association may contribute to metastasis of CaP cells. We suggest that S100A4 could be used as a biomarker for CaP progression and a novel therapeutic or chemopreventive target for human CaP treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14825-14830
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume103
Issue number40
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Metastasis

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    Saleem, M., Kweon, M. H., Johnson, J. J., Adhami, V. M., Elcheva, I., Khan, N., Hafeez, B. B., Bhat, K. M. R., Sarfaraz, S., Reagan-Shaw, S., Spiegelman, V. S., Setaluri, V., & Mukhtar, H. (2006). S100A4 accelerates tumorigenesis and invasion of human prostate cancer through the transcriptional regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(40), 14825-14830. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0606747103