The problem and the solution. A Western scholar and observer of Orthodox Christianity, Daniel Clendenin, wrote in 2003, “For Russians in particular…Orthodoxy is much more than simply a church; it is an entire way of life and culture…. Imagine living in Italy without understanding Catholicism, traveling to Kuwait and ignoring Islam, or trying to understand the people of Utah without ever studying the history of Mormonism. That will give an idea of catastrophic results of attempting to engage Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union while neglecting the role of Orthodox Christianity” (p. 21). This article starts with a brief overview of history, doctrines, and practices of Russian Orthodoxy. Next, the chapter discusses the Orthodox view of work, vocation, and learning, and draws implications for work-based human resource development practice and research. © 2006, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.