Eleven 4-13 year old schoolgirls, who were seronegative by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) tests despite having been given HPV77-DE5 vaccine 3-9 years previously, were revaccinated with RA27/3. They showed evidence of residual immunity since they had accelerated immune responses, little or no rubella-specific IgM, no viraemia, and no vaccine-induced reactions. In contrast, all but one of the five adult women who were primary vaccinees showed a more delayed immune response. Three of four women tested had viraemia and two had vaccine-induced reactions. Enhanced HI and enhanced RIA showed that many of the schoolgirls had antibody before challenge, as did a fifth adult, who also showed an accelerated immune response, yet became viraemic.