Replication protein A (RPA) is a complex of three polypeptides of 70, 34, and 13 kDa isolated from diverse eukaryotes. The complex is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein essential for simian virus 40-based DNA replication in vitro and for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified a new 30-kDa human protein which interacts with the 70- and 13- kDa subunits of RPA, with a yeast two-hybrid/interaction trap method. This protein, Rpa4, has 47% identity with Rpa2, the 34-kDa subunit of RPA. Rpa4 associates with the 70- and 13-kDa subunits to form a trimeric complex capable of binding to single-stranded DNA. Rpa4 is preferentially expressed in placental and colon mucosa tissues. In the placenta, Rpa4 is more abundant than the 70-kDa Rpa1 subunit and is not associated with either Rpa1 or with any other single-stranded DNA-binding protein. In proliferating cells in culture, Rpa4 is considerably less abundant than Rpa1 and Rpa2. Northern (RNA) blot analysis suggests that there are alternatively processed forms of the RPA4 mRNA, and Southern blot analysis indicates that beside RPA4 there may be other members of the RPA2 gene family.