We have used time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) to study the rotational dynamics of chicken gizzard regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to scallop adductor muscle myofibrils in key physiological states. Native RLC from scallop myofibrils was extracted and replaced completely with gizzard RLC labeled specifically at Cys 108 with erythrosin iodoacetamide (ErIA). The calcium sensitivity of the ATPase activity of the labeled myofibril preparation was quite similar to that of the native sample, indicating that the ErIA-labeled RLC is functionally bound to the myosin head. In rigor (in the absence of ATP, when all the myosin heads are rigidly bound to the thin filament), a slight decay was observed in the first few microseconds, followed by no change in the anisotropy. This indicates small-amplitude restricted motions of the RLC or the entire LC domain of myosin. Addition of calcium to rigor restricts these motions further. Relaxation with ATP (no Ca) causes a large decay in the anisotropy, indicating large-amplitude rotational motion with correlation times of 5-50 μs. Further addition of calcium, to induce contraction, resulted in a decrease in the rate and amplitude of anisotropy decay. In particular, there is clear evidence for a slow rotational motion with a correlation time of approximately 300 μs, which is not present either in rigor or relaxation. This indicates rotational motion that specifically correlates with force generation. The changes in the rotational dynamics of the light-chain domain in rigor, relaxation, and contraction support earlier work based on probes of the catalytic domain that muscle contraction is accompanied by a disorder-to-order transition of the myosin head. However, the motions of the LC domain are different from those of the catalytic domain, which indicates rotation of the two domains relative to each other.