The effects of the C-terminal region of the B component (MMOB) of soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b on steady-state turnover, the transient kinetics of the reaction cycle, and the properties of the sMMO hydroxylase (MMOH) active site diiron cluster have been explored. MMOB is known to have many profound effects on the rate and specificity of sMMO. Past studies have revealed specific roles for the well-folded core structure of MMOB as well as the disordered N-terminal region. Here, it is shown that the disordered C-terminal region of MMOB also performs critical roles in the regulation of catalysis. Deletion mutants of MMOB missing 5, 8, and 13 C-terminal residues cause progressive decreases in the maximum steady-state turnover number, as well as lower apparent rate constants for formation of the key reaction cycle intermediate, compound Q. It is shown that this latter effect is actually due to a decrease in the rate constant for formation of an earlier intermediate, probably the hydroperoxo species, compound P. Moreover, the deletions result in substantial uncoupling at or before the P intermediate. It is proposed that this is due to competition between slow H 2O2 release from one of the intermediates and the reaction that carries this intermediate on to the next step in the cycle, which is slowed by the mutation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) in the mixed valent state suggest that complexation with the mutant MMOBs alters the electronic properties of the diiron cluster in a manner distinct from that observed when wild-type MMOB is used. Active site structural changes are also suggested by a substantial decrease in the deuterium kinetic isotope effect for the reaction of Q with methane thought to be associated with a decrease in quantum tunneling in the C-H bond breaking reaction. Thus, the surface interactions between MMOH and MMOB that affect substrate oxidation and its regulation appear to require the complete MMOB C-terminal region for proper function.