Role of quantitative CSF microscopy to predict culture status and outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in a Brazilian cohort

José E. Vidal, Juliana Gerhardt, Érique J. Peixoto de Miranda, Rafi F. Dauar, Gilberto S. Oliveira Filho, Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira, David R. Boulware

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and quantitative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal cell counts for associations with in-hospital outcomes of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Ninety-eight HIV-infected adult patients with CSF culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis were admitted between January 2006 and June 2008 at a referral center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cryptococcal meningitis was the first AIDS-defining illness in 69%, of whom 97% (95/98) had known prior HIV infection. The median CD4+ T-cell count was 39 cells/μL (interquartile range 17-87 cells/μL). Prior antiretroviral therapy was reported in 50%. Failure to sterilize the CSF by 7-14 days was associated with baseline fungal burden of ≥10 yeasts/μL by quantitative CSF microscopy (odds ratio [OR] = 15.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.1-56.7; P < 0.001) and positive blood cultures (OR = 11.5, 95% CI 1.2-109; P = 0.034). At 7-14 days, ≥10 yeasts/μL CSF was associated with positive CSF cultures in 98% versus 36% with <10 yeasts/μL CSF (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was 30% and was associated with symptoms duration for >14 days, altered mental status (P < 0.001), CSF white blood cell counts <5 cells/μL (P = 0.027), intracranial hypertension (P = 0.011), viral loads >50,000 copies/mL (P = 0.036), ≥10 yeasts/μL CSF at 7-14 days (P = 0.038), and intracranial pressure >50 cmH 20 at 7-14 days (P = 0.007). In conclusion, most patients were aware of their HIV status. Fungal burden of ≥10 yeasts/μL by quantitative CSF microscopy predicted current CSF culture status and may be useful to customize the induction therapy. High uncontrolled intracranial pressure was associated with mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)68-73
Number of pages6
JournalDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Volume73
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2012

Keywords

  • Brazil
  • Cryptococcal meningitis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Outcome

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