Background: Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) of focal origin due to triggered activity (TA) from delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) is reproducibly inducible after anterior coronary artery occlusion. Both VT/VF and TA can be blocked by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase would block VT/VF. Methods: 69 dogs received apocynin (APO), 4 mg/kg intraveneously (IV), oxypurinol (OXY), 4 mg/kg IV, or both APO and OXY (BOTH) agents, or saline 3 h after coronary occlusion. Endocardium from ischemic sites (3-D mapping) was sampled for Rac1 (GTP-binding protein in membrane NADPH oxidase) activation or standard microelectrode techniques. Results (mean ± SE, * p < 0.05): VT/VF originating from ischemic zones was blocked by APO in 6/10 *, OXY in 4/9 *, BOTH in 5/8 * or saline in 1/27; 11/16 VT/VFs blocked were focal. In isolated myocardium, TA was blocked by APO (10−6 M) or OXY (10−8 M). Rac1 levels in ischemic endocardium were decreased by APO or OXY. Conclusion: APO and OXY suppressed focal VT/VF due to DADs, but the combination of the drugs was not more effective than either alone. Both drugs inhibited ischemic Rac1 with inhibition by OXY suggesting ROS-induced ROS. The inability to totally prevent VT/VF suggests that other mechanisms also contribute to ischemic VT.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Myocardial ischemia
- NADPH oxidase
- Triggered activity
- Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation