Role of Family and School Social Capital on Hmong Children's Perceived Academic Competence.

Zha Blong Xiong, Jacqueline Braughton, Kyle Nickodem, Jordan St Charles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study uses Coleman's (1988) social capital theory to examine the relationship between family and school social capital and perceived academic competence for Hmong students attending Hmong-focused charter schools. The 423 participants surveyed were 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students living in Minnesota, with many (48%) receiving English Learner (EL) services. Structural equation modeling indicated that school social capital, measured by school attachment and school connection, was significantly associated with students' perceived academic competence; however, no association was found with nuclear and extended family social capital. Findings illustrate the role that school environment, especially charter schools that focus on culture and language, has on students' perceived academic competence. Implications for future research are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-47
Number of pages47
JournalHmong Studies Journal
Issue number2022
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • FAMILY-school relationships
  • FAMILY roles
  • HMONG (Asian people)
  • SOCIAL capital
  • STRUCTURAL equation modeling
  • EXTENDED families
  • NUCLEAR families
  • charter schools
  • Hmong children
  • social capital


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