Purpose Invasive breast cancers are thought to arise from in situ lesions, but some ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are indolent with low likelihood of progressing to invasive carcinoma. Comparison of risk factor associations between DCIS and invasive disease may elucidate which factors influence early versus late stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, we determined whether there were differences in risk factor profiles for screen-detected DCIS and invasive breast cancer among Luminal A lesions. Methods We conducted a case-control analysis using data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2001). Analyses were restricted to Luminal A tumors and screen-detected tumors among mammography-eligible women, to limit confounding by mode of detection (N = 108 DCIS; N = 203 invasive). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between risk factors and lesion type. Results In stratified analyses, we observed qualitative differences in the direction of association for ever smoking, obese BMI, high waist-To-hip-ratio (WHR), and ?10 years of oral contraceptive use between DCIS and invasive disease. Breastfeeding was inversely associated with invasive disease and was not associated with DCIS. Interaction tests for risk factor associations between Luminal A DCIS and invasive breast cancer were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions Among Luminal A tumors, established breast cancer risk factors may exert stronger effects on progression of early lesions to invasive disease, with lesser effects on risk of DCIS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by: Komen Graduate Training and Disparities Research Grant, Puerto Rico Science, Technology and Research Trust (Science and Technology Grant), the National Cancer Institute (U54 CA163071, U54 CA163068, U01 CA179715, U54 CA156733, P30 ES010126, P50 CA058223), and the RCMI program (G12 MD007579).
© 2019 Williams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.