Risk factors for cardiac morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients.

R. N. Foley, P. S. Parfrey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Clinical and echocardiographic manifestations of cardiac disease are frequently present in patients starting end-stage renal disease therapy. Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, systolic dysfunction, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, and left ventricular dilatation are significant, adverse prognostic indicators, independent of age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Risk factors related to the uremic state, which are potentially reversible, include inadequate dialysis, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypocalcemia. Hypertension predisposes patients to congestive heart failure, following the development of which hypotension becomes an independent predictor of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)608-614
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent opinion in nephrology and hypertension
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1994


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