Objective: To identify risk factors associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) occurrence and survival in children. Study design: This was a multicenter, retrospective, case-control study of patients <20 years of age diagnosed with NMSC between 1995 and 2015 from 11 academic medical centers. The primary outcome measure was frequency of cases and controls with predisposing genetic conditions and/or iatrogenic exposures, including chemotherapy, radiation, systemic immunosuppression, and voriconazole. Results: Of the 124 children with NMSC (40 with basal cell carcinoma, 90 with squamous cell carcinoma), 70% had at least 1 identifiable risk factor. Forty-four percent of the cases had a predisposing genetic condition or skin lesion, and 29% had 1 or more iatrogenic exposures of prolonged immunosuppression, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or voriconazole use. Prolonged immunosuppression and voriconazole use were associated with squamous cell carcinoma occurrence (cases vs controls; 30% vs 0%, P =.0002, and 15% vs 0%, P =.03, respectively), and radiation therapy and chemotherapy were associated with basal cell carcinoma occurrence (both 20% vs 1%, P <.0001). Forty-eight percent of initial skin cancers had been present for >12 months prior to diagnosis and 49% of patients were diagnosed with ≥2 skin cancers. At last follow-up, 5% (6 of 124) of patients with NMSC died. Voriconazole exposure was noted in 7 cases and associated with worse 3-year overall survival (P =.001). Conclusions: NMSC in children and young adults is often associated with a predisposing condition or iatrogenic exposure. High-risk patients should be identified early to provide appropriate counseling and management.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance and the American Skin Association. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
- basal cell nevus syndrome
- prolonged immunosuppression
- radiation therapy
- xeroderma pigmentosum