Risk and protective factors for urolithiasis. What do they mean?

C. A. Osborne, J. P. Lulich

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The occurrence of urolithiasis in companion animals is associated with several risk and protective factors. Case control studies are commonly designed to study the relationship between naturally occurring urolithiasis and risk factors. However, case control studies are subject to limitations, biases, and confounding variables; they do not prove cause and effect relationships. Likewise, just because two events occur in consecutive order does not prove a cause and effect relationship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-43, x
JournalThe Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999


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