Rinsing of Saline Water from Road Salt in a Sandy Soil by Infiltrating Rainfall

Experiments, Simulations, and Implications

Makoto Higashino, Andrew J. Erickson, Francesca L. Toledo-Cossu, Scott W. Beauvais, Heinz G. Stefan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Saline melt water from road salt applications that has percolated into a fine sandy soil in winter is rinsed out of the soil by infiltrating rainwater in the following warmer seasons. This sequence of saturated and unsaturated flow processes associated with saline water transport in a fine sandy soil was studied by simulation and exploratory laboratory experiments. Experiments in soil columns of 300-μm sand revealed that two rinses of pure water, each of one pore volume, were sufficient to reduce the salt concentration by 99% of its original value in the soil column. Simulated time variations of salt concentration in the effluent from the column agreed with experimental results. Based on simulated and experimental results, a sandy soil must become saturated to experience pore water flow in order to efficiently rinse saline snowmelt water. Depending on the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth, days, weeks, or months of freshwater infiltration in summer are needed to rinse saline melt water from an unsaturated sandy soil after road salt applications in winter. This explains findings of significant salt concentrations in surface and shallow groundwater during summer months, long after road salt application and infiltration has ceased.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
    Volume228
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

    Fingerprint

    Saline water
    sandy soil
    Rain
    Salts
    Soils
    rainfall
    soil column
    salt
    meltwater
    simulation
    infiltration
    experiment
    Experiments
    water
    unsaturated flow
    Water
    winter
    summer
    snowmelt
    rainwater

    Keywords

    • Hydraulic conductivity
    • Infiltration
    • Percolation
    • Pore water
    • Porous media
    • Rainfall
    • Rainwater
    • Rinsing
    • Road salt
    • Solute transport
    • Unsaturated soil

    Cite this

    Rinsing of Saline Water from Road Salt in a Sandy Soil by Infiltrating Rainfall : Experiments, Simulations, and Implications. / Higashino, Makoto; Erickson, Andrew J.; Toledo-Cossu, Francesca L.; Beauvais, Scott W.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol. 228, No. 2, 01.01.2017.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Higashino, Makoto ; Erickson, Andrew J. ; Toledo-Cossu, Francesca L. ; Beauvais, Scott W. ; Stefan, Heinz G. / Rinsing of Saline Water from Road Salt in a Sandy Soil by Infiltrating Rainfall : Experiments, Simulations, and Implications. In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2017 ; Vol. 228, No. 2.
    @article{a7009019d51b4be7a0073a26159f0e8d,
    title = "Rinsing of Saline Water from Road Salt in a Sandy Soil by Infiltrating Rainfall: Experiments, Simulations, and Implications",
    abstract = "Saline melt water from road salt applications that has percolated into a fine sandy soil in winter is rinsed out of the soil by infiltrating rainwater in the following warmer seasons. This sequence of saturated and unsaturated flow processes associated with saline water transport in a fine sandy soil was studied by simulation and exploratory laboratory experiments. Experiments in soil columns of 300-μm sand revealed that two rinses of pure water, each of one pore volume, were sufficient to reduce the salt concentration by 99{\%} of its original value in the soil column. Simulated time variations of salt concentration in the effluent from the column agreed with experimental results. Based on simulated and experimental results, a sandy soil must become saturated to experience pore water flow in order to efficiently rinse saline snowmelt water. Depending on the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth, days, weeks, or months of freshwater infiltration in summer are needed to rinse saline melt water from an unsaturated sandy soil after road salt applications in winter. This explains findings of significant salt concentrations in surface and shallow groundwater during summer months, long after road salt application and infiltration has ceased.",
    keywords = "Hydraulic conductivity, Infiltration, Percolation, Pore water, Porous media, Rainfall, Rainwater, Rinsing, Road salt, Solute transport, Unsaturated soil",
    author = "Makoto Higashino and Erickson, {Andrew J.} and Toledo-Cossu, {Francesca L.} and Beauvais, {Scott W.} and Stefan, {Heinz G.}",
    year = "2017",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1007/s11270-017-3256-1",
    language = "English (US)",
    volume = "228",
    journal = "Water, Air, and Soil Pollution",
    issn = "0049-6979",
    publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
    number = "2",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Rinsing of Saline Water from Road Salt in a Sandy Soil by Infiltrating Rainfall

    T2 - Experiments, Simulations, and Implications

    AU - Higashino, Makoto

    AU - Erickson, Andrew J.

    AU - Toledo-Cossu, Francesca L.

    AU - Beauvais, Scott W.

    AU - Stefan, Heinz G.

    PY - 2017/1/1

    Y1 - 2017/1/1

    N2 - Saline melt water from road salt applications that has percolated into a fine sandy soil in winter is rinsed out of the soil by infiltrating rainwater in the following warmer seasons. This sequence of saturated and unsaturated flow processes associated with saline water transport in a fine sandy soil was studied by simulation and exploratory laboratory experiments. Experiments in soil columns of 300-μm sand revealed that two rinses of pure water, each of one pore volume, were sufficient to reduce the salt concentration by 99% of its original value in the soil column. Simulated time variations of salt concentration in the effluent from the column agreed with experimental results. Based on simulated and experimental results, a sandy soil must become saturated to experience pore water flow in order to efficiently rinse saline snowmelt water. Depending on the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth, days, weeks, or months of freshwater infiltration in summer are needed to rinse saline melt water from an unsaturated sandy soil after road salt applications in winter. This explains findings of significant salt concentrations in surface and shallow groundwater during summer months, long after road salt application and infiltration has ceased.

    AB - Saline melt water from road salt applications that has percolated into a fine sandy soil in winter is rinsed out of the soil by infiltrating rainwater in the following warmer seasons. This sequence of saturated and unsaturated flow processes associated with saline water transport in a fine sandy soil was studied by simulation and exploratory laboratory experiments. Experiments in soil columns of 300-μm sand revealed that two rinses of pure water, each of one pore volume, were sufficient to reduce the salt concentration by 99% of its original value in the soil column. Simulated time variations of salt concentration in the effluent from the column agreed with experimental results. Based on simulated and experimental results, a sandy soil must become saturated to experience pore water flow in order to efficiently rinse saline snowmelt water. Depending on the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the soil depth, days, weeks, or months of freshwater infiltration in summer are needed to rinse saline melt water from an unsaturated sandy soil after road salt applications in winter. This explains findings of significant salt concentrations in surface and shallow groundwater during summer months, long after road salt application and infiltration has ceased.

    KW - Hydraulic conductivity

    KW - Infiltration

    KW - Percolation

    KW - Pore water

    KW - Porous media

    KW - Rainfall

    KW - Rainwater

    KW - Rinsing

    KW - Road salt

    KW - Solute transport

    KW - Unsaturated soil

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85010736833&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85010736833&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1007/s11270-017-3256-1

    DO - 10.1007/s11270-017-3256-1

    M3 - Article

    VL - 228

    JO - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

    JF - Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

    SN - 0049-6979

    IS - 2

    ER -