Ringer's ethyl pyruvate in hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation does not improve early hemodynamics or tissue energetics

Kristine E. Mulier, Greg J. Beilman, Mark J. Conroy, Jodie H. Taylor, David E. Skarda, Bruce E. Hammer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic shock. Ethyl pyruvate, a derivative of pyruvate and a proposed oxygen radical scavenger, is attractive as a possible resuscitation fluid. We investigated whether resuscitation with lactated Ringer's (LR) containing ethyl pyruvate (REP) had any hemodynamic or tissue energetic benefits compared with LR alone for hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in splenectomized pigs via inferior vena cava cannula. After 90 min of shock, animals were resuscitated in a stepwise fashion with LR or REP (30 mg/kg/dose, given as 1.5 mg/mL in LR) at 20 cc/kg/step for four steps. Data collected during this experiment included physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy measurements of tissue hemoglobin oxygen (StO 2) of the stomach, liver, and hind limb, and nuclear magnetic resonance phosphorus spectra of the liver and hind limb at each time point. In both resuscitative groups, heart rate, and lactate and pyruvate values increased during shock and began to drop toward baseline values during resuscitation. Mean arterial pressure, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption decreased during shock and increased toward baseline levels during the resuscitative process. There were no significant changes in physiologic parameters between the LR- and REP-resuscitated animals. There was a significantly lower stomach StO 2 and hind limb cellular cytoplasmic pH during later resuscitative endpoints in REP-resuscitated animals. The clinical significance of these findings are unclear. There is no short-term hemodynamic or tissue energetic advantage to using REP as a resuscitation fluid when compared with LR. Long-term outcome studies are needed to further evaluate any potential benefits of use of REP in hemorrhagic shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-252
Number of pages5
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2005


  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • LR
  • Lactated Ringer's
  • NIRS
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • REP
  • Ringer's ethylpyruvate
  • Tissue energetics


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