Review on the chemical reduction modelling of hematite iron ore to magnetite in fluidized bed reactor

Rahul K. Soni, Eswaraiah Chinthapudi, Sunil K. Tripathy, Manaswita Bose, Partha S. Goswami

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Steel production is considered as one of the major backbones of many economies. Though blast furnace is the primary route of steel production, the industries are willing to alternatives technologies such as the high temperature-controlled conversion of hematite to magnetite. The geological and mineralogical characteristics of the low-grade iron ores possess difficulties in their conventional enrichment. The literature concludes the advantages of high-temperature conversion in terms of easiness in downstream operations caused by decreased hardness and increased magnetic susceptibility of magnetite. The modelling work has been primarily focused on the direct reduction of iron ore to metallic iron. The present compilation discusses the scientific and engineering developments on the reduction-roasting of iron-ore followed by the CFD–DEM modelling and simulation work performed to reduce iron ore to magnetite. It provides a comprehensive review of the experimental and industrial progress done in the area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1299-1342
Number of pages44
JournalReviews in Chemical Engineering
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

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  • CFD–DEM coupling
  • fluidized bed reactor
  • low-grade iron ore
  • reduction of iron ore
  • reduction reaction modeling


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