Review of the Global Distribution of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from 2007 to 2014

B. P. Brito, L. L. Rodriguez, J. M. Hammond, J. Pinto, A. M. Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

185 Scopus citations


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus affects livestock worldwide. There are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. Some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. The objective of this study was to review the most significant FMD epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. Severe epidemics were caused by FMD virus (FMDV) lineage O/Asia/Mya-98 in Japan and South Korea in 2010, both previously free of disease. In India, where FMD is endemic, the most important event was the re-emergence of lineage O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 in 2008. Notably, this lineage, normally restricted to India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, was also found in Saudi Arabia and Libya in 2013 and has caused several outbreaks in Tunisia and Algeria in 2014–2015. In January 2011, FMDV-positive wild boars were found in Bulgaria, where the disease last occurred in 1996, followed by 12 outbreaks in livestock infected with FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia2. In 2012, FMDV SAT2 caused outbreaks in Egypt and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. Another significant event was the emergence of FMDV Asia1 Sindh-08 in the Middle East. In South America, one outbreak of FMDV serotype O, topotype Euro-SA was reported in Paraguay in 2011, which was recognized as FMD-free with vaccination at the time. Lessons learned from past events, point out the need for an integrated strategy that comprises coordinated global and regional efforts for FMDV control and surveillance. Specific local characteristics related to host, environment and virus that condition FMD occurrence should be carefully considered and incorporated to adapt appropriate strategies into local plans. In this review, we compiled relevant epidemiological FMD events to provide a global overview of the current situation. We further discussed current challenges present in different FMD areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-332
Number of pages17
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Published (2015). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


  • epidemiology
  • foot-and-mouth disease virus
  • lineages
  • livestock
  • phylogenetic


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