The antiretroviral combination of emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in individuals at high risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in July 2012. Since then, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the use of PrEP have been published and implemented into clinical practice throughout the United States. A number of published open-label and PrEP demonstration projects have evaluated the real-world use of PrEP including analysis of the barriers to its use and addressing major concerns. Despite the approval of FTC/TDF for PrEP, its use for this indication relies on patient and provider acceptance, and its effectiveness requires patient adherence and retention in care during periods of high-risk behaviors. Concerns regarding the use of PrEP in healthy individuals persist and include medication adverse effects including renal dysfunction and bone mineral density loss; risk compensation leading to HIV infections, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies; and the development of drug resistance in the event of seroconversion. The cost-effectiveness of PrEP continues to be assessed with the greatest cost-effectiveness remaining in those at highest risk of acquiring HIV. Additionally, cases of HIV acquisition in individuals who are adherent to PrEP highlight scenarios in which PrEP is not 100% effective including against the transmission of drug-resistant HIV strains. This review examines data on the implementation of PrEP outside the setting of clinical trials with the aim of providing clinicians with a summary of the current barriers and opportunities for PrEP use with a specific focus on the role of pharmacists in the optimization of PrEP implementation.
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- pre-exposure prophylaxis
- tenofovir disoproxil fumarate