Invasive mould infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (HSCT). Allogeneic HSCT recipients are at substantially higher risk than autologous HSCT recipients. Although neutropenia following the conditioning regimen remains an important risk factor for opportunistic fungal infections, most cases of invasive mould infection in allogeneic HSCT recipients occur after neutrophil recovery in the setting of potent immunosuppressive therapy for graft-versus-host disease. Invasive aspergillosis is the most common mould infection. However, there has been an increased incidence of less common non-Aspergillus moulds that include zygomycetes, Fusarium sp., and Scedosporium sp. Reflecting a key need, important advances have been made in the antifungal armamentarium. Voriconazole has become a new standard of care as primary therapy for invasive aspergillosis based on superiority over amphotericin B. There is significant interest in combination therapy for invasive aspergillosis pairing voriconazole or an amphotericin B formulation with an echinocandin. There have also been advances in novel diagnostic methods that facilitate early detection of invasive fungal infections that include galactomannan and beta-glucan antigen detection and PCR using fungal specific primers. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of invasive mould infection in HSCT, with a focus on allogeneic recipients. We also discuss options for prevention and early treatment of invasive mould infections.
- Graft-versus-host disease
- Stem cell transplant