Retroviral nucleocapsid proteins display nonequivalent levels of nucleic acid chaperone activity

Kristen M. Stewart-Maynard, Margareta Cruceanu, Fei Wang, My Nuong Vo, Robert J. Gorelick, Mark C. Williams, Ioulia Rouzina, Karin Musier-Forsyth

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72 Scopus citations


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone that facilitates the remodeling of nucleic acids during various steps of the viral life cycle. Two main features of NC's chaperone activity are its abilities to aggregate and to destabilize nucleic acids. These functions are associated with NC's highly basic character and with its zinc finger domains, respectively. While the chaperone activity of HIV-1 NC has been extensively studied, less is known about the chaperone activities of other retroviral NCs. In this work, complementary experimental approaches were used to characterize and compare the chaperone activities of NC proteins from four different retroviruses: HIV-1, Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The different NCs exhibited significant differences in their overall chaperone activities, as demonstrated by gel shift annealing assays, decreasing in the order HIV-1 ∼ RSV > MLV ≫ HTLV-1. In addition, whereas HIV-1, RSV, and MLV NCs are effective aggregating agents, HTLV-1 NC, which exhibits poor overall chaperone activity, is unable to aggregate nucleic acids. Measurements of equilibrium binding to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides suggested that all four NC proteins have moderate duplex destabilization capabilities. Single-molecule DNA-stretching studies revealed striking differences in the kinetics of nucleic acid dissociation between the NC proteins, showing excellent correlation between nucleic acid dissociation kinetics and overall chaperone activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10129-10142
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2008


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