Measurement of chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes has been used to quantify prior exposure to ionizing radiation, including for workers exposed to low, chronic doses. We assessed translocation frequencies in a sub-set of U.S. radiologic technologists to substantiate ionizing radiation dose estimates developed for 110,418 technologists who worked between 1916 and 1984. From 3,441 cohort members known to have begun working before 1950, we selected a sample of 152, stratified by estimated cumulative dose, oversampling from higher-dose categories and excluding persons with a prior cancer diagnosis, a personal or family history of chromosomal instability disorders, or a current history of smoking. Estimates of film-badge dose ranged from less than 10 cSv to more than 30 cSv. Blood samples, obtained in 2004, were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) whole chromosome painting by simultaneously labeling chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in red and 3, 5 and 6 in green. Translocations were scored in 1800 well-spread metaphase cells and expressed per 100 cell equivalents (CE) per person. Linear Poisson regression models with allowance for overdispersion were used to assess the relationship between estimated occupational red bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy and translocation frequency, adjusted for age, gender and estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose score from personal diagnostic procedures. We observed 0.09 excess translocations per 100 CE per cGy red bone marrow dose (95% CI: -0.01, 0.2; P = 0.07), which is similar to the expected estimate based on previous cytogenetic studies (0.05 excess translocations per 100 CE per cGy). Despite uncertainty in the estimates of occupational red bone marrow absorbed doses, we found good general agreement between the doses and translocation frequencies, lending support to the credibility of the dose assessment for this large cohort of U.S. radiologic technologists.