Noncompliance is increasingly recognized as a major cause of renal allograft loss, but the results of retransplantation of such patients have never been described. At our center, 52 of 3525 kidney recipients between June 1,1963 and December 31,1993 lost their graft due to overt noncompliance. Of these, 14 (27%) underwent retransplantation after thorough interdisciplinary evaluation. All but 1 patient had returned to dialysis before retransplantation. Of the retransplanted grafts, 2 were lost (1 technical failure, 1 chronic rejection in a compliant patient); both recipients were retransplanted once again. Currently, all retransplanted patients are alive and have a functioning graft. We conclude that for selected patients with graft loss due to noncompliance excellent results can be achieved with retransplantation. However, the issue of retransplanting previously noncompliant patients in the face of a significant donor organ shortage requires public debate.