Retinoic acid-stimulated sequential phosphorylation, PML recruitment, and SUMOylation of nuclear receptor TR2 to suppress Oct4 expression

Pawan Gupta, Ping Chih Ho, M. D.Mostaqul Huq, Sung Gil Ha, Sung Wook Park, Ali Khan Amjad, Nien Pei Tsai, Li-Na Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations

Abstract

We previously reported an intricate mechanism underlying the homeostasis of Oct4 expression in normally proliferating stem cell culture of P19, mediated by SUMOylation of orphan nuclear receptor TR2. In the present study, we identify a signaling pathway initiated from the nongenomic activity of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) to stimulate complex formation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) with its upstream kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). The activated ERK2 phosphorylates threonine-210 (Thr-210) of TR2, stimulating its subsequent SUMOylation. Dephosphorylated TR2 recruits coactivator PCAF and functions as an activator for its target gene Oct4. Upon phosphorylation at Thr-210, TR2 increasingly associates with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, becomes SUMOylated, and recruits corepressor RIP140 to act as a repressor for its target, Oct4. To normally proliferating P19 stem cell culture, exposure to a physiological concentration of atRA triggers a rapid nongenomic signaling cascade to suppress Oct4 gene and regulate cell proliferation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11424-11429
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume105
Issue number32
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 12 2008

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