Retention of homeless smokers in the power to quit study

Christina M. Richards, Faduma Sharif, Sara Eischen, Janet L Thomas, Qi Wang, Hongfei Guo, Xianghua Luo, Kola Okuyemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Introduction: Concerns about retention are a major barrier to conducting studies enrolling homeless individuals. Since smoking is a major problem in homeless communities and research on effective methods of promoting smoking cessation is needed, we describe strategies used to increase retention and participant characteristics associated with retention in smoking cessation study enrolling homeless adults. Methods: The parent study was a 2-group randomized controlled trial with 26-week follow-up enrolling 430 homeless smokers from emergency shelters and transitional housing units in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN, USA. Multiple strategies were used to increase retention, including conducting visits at convenient locations for participants, collecting several forms of contact information from participants, using a schedule that was flexible and included frequent low-intensity visits, and providing incentives. Participant demographics as well as characteristics related to tobacco and drug use and health status were analyzed for associations with retention using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Overall retention was 75% at 26 weeks. Factors associated with increased retention included greater age; having healthcare coverage; history of multiple homeless episodes, lower stress level; and higher PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) score. A history of excessive drinking and drug use were associated with decreased retention. Conclusions: It is possible to successfully retain homeless individuals in a smoking cessation study if the study is designed with participants' needs in mind.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1104-1111
Number of pages8
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


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