Retail clinics colocated with pharmacies: A Delphi study of pharmacist impacts and recommendations for optimization

Katherine K. Knapp, Anthony W. Olson, Jon C. Schommer, Caroline A. Gaither, David A. Mott, William R. Doucette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To identify workforce issues likely to affect pharmacists working in retail clinics (RCs) colocated with community pharmacies and to generate recommendations for optimizing health, cost, and operations outcomes. Design and participants: A Delphi expert panel process using researchers with pharmacist workforce research experience was used. Panelists responded to 2 surveys of 3 rounds each. In survey 1, panelists used a 4-point linear numeric scale to rate the importance of 15 impact factors on pharmacists working in the RC/pharmacy setting. In survey 2, panelists used a 3-point linear numeric scale to rate the importance of recommendations for optimal outcomes. Recommendations were structured around elements from collaboration theory, a framework for evaluating critical areas for success in merged operations. Main outcome measures: Consensus was defined as ≥ 80% rating an impact “very” or “moderately” important (survey 1) and “very” important (survey 2). Impact factors were rank-ordered by ratings and numeric scoring. Selected comments about consensus items were reported. Results: The 8-person panel had 100% response rates for both surveys. 12 of the 15 impact variables achieved consensus (survey 1). The highest ranking impacts were ability to establish collaborative relationships, relationships with coworkers, including nurse practitioners, and location of the RC relative to the pharmacy. Of 15 recommendations (survey 2), 5 achieved consensus and focused heavily on information sharing and early and ongoing collaboration among all stakeholders. Conclusion: Clinical, economic, health care quality, and patient preference data suggest that RCs colocated with pharmacies are likely to play a permanent role in U.S. health care. RCs can affect pharmacists and pharmacies positively or negatively. Positive impacts are most likely where establishing collaborative partnerships with all stakeholders, including patients, throughout planning, implementation, and operation are emphasized. With only about 3% of pharmacy operations colocated with RCs now, attention and resources should be devoted to developing and testing models based on collaboration principles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-318
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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