We compared the results of autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) in 87 patients with multiple myeloma using myeloablative preparative regimen. Autologous transplant (n = 70) led to a lower 100-day transplant-related mortality (TRM) of 4% [0-9%] compared to 18% [0-36%] in allogeneic recipients (P = 0.02). More frequent complete responses were seen in allogeneic recipients (64% [37-91%] vs 34% [23-45%] in autologous recipients, P = 0.09). In autologous recipients, survival at 1 year was 86% [80-95%] and, it fell to 50% [47-75%] at 4 years, whereas in allogeneic recipients, survival at 1 and 4 years remained at 64% [40-87%]. In patients surviving more than one year, 4-year survival was superior in allogeneic (100%) vs autologous recipients (58% [41-75%], P = 0.02). A trend toward higher relapse was seen in autologous transplant patients (73% [55-90%] vs 37% [11-63%] in allogeneic transplant patients, P = 0.1). We observed good tolerance of myeloablative conditioning regimen followed by either autologous or allogeneic transplant. Although autologous HCT is associated with lower TRM, allogeneic HCT has acceptable TRM, and is more likely to provide a sustained response. Allogeneic HCT may be suitable in younger patients, soon after diagnosis, and in those with chemosensitive disease.
- Autologous vs allogeneic
- Multiple myeloma