Human adenovirus fails to multiply efficiently in monkey cells owing to a block to late viral gene expression. Ad2hr400 through Ad2hr403 are a set of host range (hr) mutants which were selected for their ability to readily grow in these cells at 37°C. The mutations responsible for this extended host range have previously been mapped to the 5' portion of the gene encoding the 72-kilodalton DNA-binding protein (DBP). DNA sequence analyses indicate that all four hr mutants contain the same alteration at coding triplet 130, which changes a histidine codon to a tyrosine codon. These results extend those of Anderson et al. (J. Virol. 48:31-39, 1983), which suggested that only this change in the DBP amino acid sequence can expand adenovirus host range to monkey cells. The hr phenotype does not appear to require phosphorylation of this tyrosine residue, since no phosphotyrosine was detected in DBP isolated from Ad2hr400- infected monkey cells. The hr mutants Ad2hr400 through Ad2hr403, however, are cold sensitive for growth in monkey cells. The mutant Ad2ts400, which was derived from Ad2hr400, represents a second class of hr mutants which can grow efficiently in monkey cells at 32.5°C. The cold-resistant hr mutation of Ad2ts400 has previously been mapped to the 5' region of the DBP gene (map units 63.6 through 66). DNA sequence analysis of this region shows that this mutant contains the original hr alteration at coding triplet 130 as well as a second alteration at coding triplet 148, which changes an alanine codon to a valine codon. We suspect that the alterations at amino acids 130 and 148 change the structure of the amino-terminal domain of the DBP, allowing it to better interact with monkey cell components required for late viral gene expression. Ad2ts400 also contains a temperature- sensitive mutation which has previously been mapped to the 3' portion of the DBP gene (map units 61.3 through 63.6). Sequence analysis of this region indicates that the DBP coding triplet 413 has been altered. This change from a serine codon to a proline codon is the same alteration reported in the previously sequenced DBP mutants Ad5ts125 (W. Kruijer et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 9:4439-4457, 1981) and Ad5ts107 (W. Kruijer et al., Virology 124:425-433, 1983). Thus it appears that only a very limited number of changes in either the 5' or the 3' portion of the DBP gene can give rise to the hr or temperature-sensitive phenotypes, respectively.