Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing conditions in the preparation of cowpea tempeh. The independent factors studied were boiling time (varying from 5 to 30 min), incubation time (varying from 12 to 48 h) and incubation temperatures (varying from 25 to 50C), whereas the dependent factors were protein content, protein solubility, pH, titratable acidity and total color difference (using L, a* and b*). Regression models were generated and adequacy was tested with regression coefficients (R2) and the lack-of-fit tests. Optimum processing conditions were determined by method of superimposition. There was a strong and significant influence (P < 0.01) of the quadratic effect of the incubation time on the protein content of the cowpea tempeh, with similar significance (P < 0.01) noted in protein solubility with increasing boiling time. The optimum processing conditions observed for the preparation of cowpea tempeh were boiling time of about 20 min, incubation time of about 28 h and incubation temperature of about 37C.