In an earlier paper , we examined the mutual interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and the cell membrane and explored the role this interaction plays during freeze/thaw. In this follow-up paper, we investigate the physical and chemical stresses induced by freeze/thaw and explore the different mechanisms of damage caused by these stresses. Our results showed that changes in cell volume during freeze/thaw and the unfrozen water content in the solution alter the cytoskeleton stiffness, and the available membrane material. Combined with unfavorable ice-membrane interactions and increasing membrane stiffness, increased de-structuring of the membrane (such as bleb and microvilli formation) synergistically act on the membrane-cytoskeleton system generating irreversible damage.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Statement of funding: This research was partially supported by a University of Minnesota Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship awarded to V.R. and the University of Minnesota McKnight Land-Grant Professorship awarded to A.A. as well as an NSF Grant ( CBET-0644784 ) and its REU supplement.
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- Actin cytoskeleton