Resilience Protective Factors Checklist (RPFC): Buffering Childhood Adversity and Promoting Positive Outcomes

Kevin M. Powell, Ryan L. Rahm-Knigge, Bradley T. Conner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


While research tends to focus on understanding risk factors associated with adverse childhood and adolescent experiences, there is growing empirical support within the field of human services to also focus on strengths and protective factors that bolster resilience in life. This study investigated the psychometrics of the Resilience Protective Factors Checklist (RPFC), which is a questionnaire that assists in the identification of protective factors empirically linked to resilience and positive outcomes. In addition, associations between protective factors, childhood adversity, and quality of life outcomes were examined. Participants were undergraduate college students (n = 1,256). The results revealed good psychometric properties for the RPFC and the factor analysis supported the resilience structural model of three interrelated areas of protective factors - Individual, Family, and Community influences. All three areas of protection were positively correlated with all four domains of positive life outcomes (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and a healthy environment) and negatively correlated with adverse childhood experiences. RPFC’s individual protective factors positively predicted physical health and psychological health outcomes, while the community protective factors positively predicted environmental health outcomes. In addition, the RPFC’s family protective factors moderated the path between adverse childhood experiences and social relationships. That is, for individuals who have experienced more adverse childhood experiences, those with higher levels of RPFC family protective factors had positive social relationship outcomes, while those with lower levels of family protective factors had negative social relationship outcomes. These findings lend support for the utilization of assessment measures for identifying and promoting protective factors that can buffer life adversity and heighten resilient positive outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1437-1461
Number of pages25
JournalPsychological reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • Protective factors
  • new questionnaires
  • positive psychology
  • prosocial behavior
  • relationships
  • resilience
  • trauma


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