Rescheduling the process of nanoparticle removal used for water mercury remediation can increase the risk to aquatic organism: evidence of innate immune functions modulation in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.)

Leonor C. Costa, Iram Mohmood, Tito Trindade, Mohammad Saleem, Armando C. Duarte, Eduarda Pereira, Iqbal Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the mechanisms of innate immune function responses to silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticle functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (IONP) exposure alone and its associated mercury (Hg) in European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) phagocytes isolated from peritoneum (P-phagocytes), gill (G-phagocytes), head kidney (HK-phagocytes) and spleen (S-phagocytes). The study evaluated viability, phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Four groups were made: (1) 2 × 106 phagocytes + RPMI-1640 (control), (2) 2 × 106 phagocytes + IONP (2.5 mg L−1), (3) 2 × 106 phagocytes + Hg (50 μg L−1) and (4) 2 × 106 phagocytes + IONP + Hg. Samplings were performed at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. A. anguilla P-, G-, HK- and S-phagocytes in vitro exposure to IONP alone revealed either increased (except HK-phagocytes at 16 h) or no change in viability, suggesting that the cells are metabolically active and resistant to IONP exposure alone. In terms of phagocytes overactivation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as an indirect mechanism of immunotoxicity, the phagocytes responded in the following manner: P- > S- > HK- = G-phagocytes for IONP exposure alone, S- > HK- > P- = G-phagocytes for Hg exposure alone and HK- > G- = S- > P-phagocytes for concomitant exposure. Overall, considering Hg as a surrogate for metals and its association with IONP, as well as the likelihood that it could pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms by modulating their immune defense mechanisms if accidentally discharged into the aquatic environment, current results suggest that the step of IONP–metal complex removal must not be underrated and should be processed without any more ado.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18574-18589
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume22
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

Keywords

  • Anguilla anguilla L
  • In vitro immunotoxicity
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles
  • Mercury
  • Metal removal

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