Reproductive Factors, Hormonal Contraception, and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata in African-American Women: A Prospective Study

Lauren A. Wise, Julie R. Palmer, Bernard L. Harlow, Donna Spigelman, Elizabeth A. Stewart, Lucile L. Adams-Campbell, Lynn Rosenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

228 Scopus citations


The authors assessed the risk of uterine leiomyomata in relation to reproductive factors and hormonal contraception in a prospective cohort study of US Black women. From March 1997 through March 2001, the authors followed 22,895 premenopausal women with intact uteri and no prior self-reported diagnosis of uterine leiomyomata. The authors used age- and time-stratified Cox regression models to estimate incidence rate ratios for self-reported uterine leiomyomata, confirmed by ultrasound or hysterectomy, in association with selected reproductive and hormonal factors. During 76,711 person-years of follow-up, 2,279 new cases of ultrasound- or hysterectomy-confirmed uterine leiomyomata were self-reported. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and other reproductive covariates, the risk of ultrasound- or hysterectomy-confirmed leiomyomata was inversely associated with age at menarche, parity, and age at first birth and positively associated with years since last birth. Overweight or obesity appeared to attenuate the inverse association between parity and uterine leiomyomata. Current use of progestin-only injectables was inversely associated with risk. No consistent patterns were observed for other forms of hormonal contraception. Reproductive history is an important determinant of leiomyomata risk in premenopausal US Black women. Progestin-only injectables may reduce risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-123
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 2004
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by National Cancer Institute grant CA58420.


  • Blacks
  • Contraceptives, oral
  • Female
  • Leiomyoma
  • Premenopause
  • Prospective studies
  • Reproduction
  • Uterine neoplasms


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