Reproducibility of CRISPR-Cas9 methods for generation of conditional mouse alleles: A multi-center evaluation

Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Aidan R. O'Brien, Rolen M. Quadros, John Adams, Pilar Alcaide, Shinya Ayabe, Johnathan Ballard, Surinder K. Batra, Marie Claude Beauchamp, Kathleen A. Becker, Guillaume Bernas, David Brough, Francisco Carrillo-Salinas, Wesley Chan, Hanying Chen, Ruby Dawson, Victoria Demambro, Jinke D'Hont, Katharine M. Dibb, James D. EudyLin Gan, Jing Gao, Amy Gonzales, Anyonya R. Guntur, Huiping Guo, Donald W. Harms, Anne Harrington, Kathryn E. Hentges, Neil Humphreys, Shiho Imai, Hideshi Ishii, Mizuho Iwama, Eric Jonasch, Michelle Karolak, Bernard Keavney, Nay Chi Khin, Masamitsu Konno, Yuko Kotani, Yayoi Kunihiro, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Catherine Larochelle, Catherine B. Lawrence, Lin Li, Volkhard Lindner, Xian De Liu, Gloria Lopez-Castejon, Andrew Loudon, Jenna Lowe, Loydie A. Jerome-Majewska, Taiji Matsusaka, Hiromi Miura, Yoshiki Miyasaka, Benjamin Morpurgo, Katherine Motyl, Yo Ichi Nabeshima, Koji Nakade, Toshiaki Nakashiba, Kenichi Nakashima, Yuichi Obata, Sanae Ogiwara, Mariette Ouellet, Leif Oxburgh, Sandra Piltz, Ilka Pinz, Moorthy P. Ponnusamy, David Ray, Ronald J. Redder, Clifford J. Rosen, Nikki Ross, Mark T. Ruhe, Larisa Ryzhova, Ane M. Salvador, Sabrina Shameen Alam, Radislav Sedlacek, Karan Sharma, Chad Smith, Katrien Staes, Lora Starrs, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Tomohiro Tanaka, Andrew W. Trafford, Yoshihiro Uno, Leen Vanhoutte, Frederique Vanrockeghem, Brandon J. Willis, Christian S. Wright, Yuko Yamauchi, Xin Yi, Kazuto Yoshimi, Xuesong Zhang, Yu Zhang, Masato Ohtsuka, Satyabrata Das, Daniel J. Garry, Tino Hochepied, Paul Thomas, Jan Parker-Thornburg, Antony D. Adamson, Atsushi Yoshiki, Jean Francois Schmouth, Andrei Golovko, William R. Thompson, K. C.Kent Lloyd, Joshua A. Wood, Mitra Cowan, Tomoji Mashimo, Seiya Mizuno, Hao Zhu, Petr Kasparek, Lucy Liaw, Joseph M. Miano, Gaetan Burgio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technology has facilitated the generation of knockout mice, providing an alternative to cumbersome and time-consuming traditional embryonic stem cell-based methods. An earlier study reported up to 16% efficiency in generating conditional knockout (cKO or floxed) alleles by microinjection of 2 single guide RNAs (sgRNA) and 2 single-stranded oligonucleotides as donors (referred herein as "two-donor floxing" method). Results: We re-evaluate the two-donor method from a consortium of 20 laboratories across the world. The dataset constitutes 56 genetic loci, 17,887 zygotes, and 1718 live-born mice, of which only 15 (0.87%) mice contain cKO alleles. We subject the dataset to statistical analyses and a machine learning algorithm, which reveals that none of the factors analyzed was predictive for the success of this method. We test some of the newer methods that use one-donor DNA on 18 loci for which the two-donor approach failed to produce cKO alleles. We find that the one-donor methods are 10- to 20-fold more efficient than the two-donor approach. Conclusion: We propose that the two-donor method lacks efficiency because it relies on two simultaneous recombination events in cis, an outcome that is dwarfed by pervasive accompanying undesired editing events. The methods that use one-donor DNA are fairly efficient as they rely on only one recombination event, and the probability of correct insertion of the donor cassette without unanticipated mutational events is much higher. Therefore, one-donor methods offer higher efficiencies for the routine generation of cKO animal models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number171
JournalGenome biology
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 26 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
All experiments were approved from the respective Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees in the USA and Ethics Committees in Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Japan, Spain, and the UK according to the guidelines or code of practice from the National Institute of Health in the USA, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in Australia, Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK or Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) in Japan, the Central Commission for Animal Welfare (CCAW) in the Czech Republic, the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) in Canada, the National Ethics Code from the Royal Belgian (Flemish) Academy of Medicine in Belgium, and the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity from All European Academies.

Funding Information:
All experiments were approved by the respective Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees in the USA and Ethics Committees in Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Japan, Spain, and the UK according to the guidelines or code of practice from the National Institute of Health in the USA, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in Australia, Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK, or Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) in Japan, the Central Commission for Animal Welfare (CCAW) in the Czech Republic, the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) in Canada, the National Ethics Code from the Royal Belgian (Flemish) Academy of Medicine in Belgium, and the European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity from All European Academies.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure (NCRIS) via the Australian Phenomics Network (APN) (to Gaetan Burgio and Paul Thomas), by an Institutional Development Award (PI: Shelley Smith) P20GM103471 (to CBG, RMQ, DWH, JDE, and RR), by NIGMS 1P30GM110768-01 and P30CA036727 (as part of support to University of Nebraska Mouse Genome Engineering and DNA Sequencing Cores), the British Heart Foundation FS12-57, FS12/57/29717, and CH/13/2/30154 and the program grant RG/15/12/31616 (to Kathryn Hentges and Bernard Keavney), the Wellcome Trust grants 107849/Z/ 15/Z, 097820/Z11/B, and 105610/Z/14/Z, the Medical Research Council MR/ N029992/1 (to DB and CBL), the National BioResource Project of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology/Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (MEXT/AMED), Japan, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research MOP#142452 (MCB and LJM). LJM is a member of the Research Centre of the McGill University Health Centre which is supported in part by FQRS. Dr. William Thompson was supported by the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, funded in part by grant #UL1 TR001108 from the National Institute of Health (NIH), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. KC Kent Lloyd is supported by the NIH (UM1OD023221), and work contributed by staff from the UC Davis Mouse Biology Program (MBP) is supported by a grant from the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. The work contributed from Xiande Liu, Chad Smith, Eric Jonasch, Xuesong Zhang, and Jan Parker-Thornburg is supported by the NIH under the award number P30CA16672 (XL, CS, EJ, XZ, JPT) and R50CA211121 (JPT). Joseph Miano is supported by the NIH under the award number HL138987. R Sedlacek was supported by LM2015040 (Czech Centre for Phenogenomics), CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0109 (BIOCEV), and CZ.1.05/2.1.00/19.0395 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) and by Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (RVO 68378050). David Ray was supported by a Wellcome Trust Investigator (107849/Z/15/Z) and the Medical Research Council (MR/P011853/1 and MR/P023576/) grants. Andrew Loudon was supported by a Wellcome Trust Investigator (107849/Z/15/Z), Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/N015584/1), Medical Research Council (MR/P023576/1). The work contributed from Gloria Lopez-Castejon is supported by the Wellcome Trust (104192/Z/14/Z) and the Royal Society. Pilar Alcaide was supported by the NIH (HL 123658). The work contributed from Surinder K. Batra is supported by the NIH under the award number P01 CA217798.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • CRISPR-Cas9
  • Conditional knockout mouse
  • Floxed allele
  • Homology-directed repair
  • Long single-stranded DNA
  • Machine learning
  • Mouse
  • Oligonucleotide
  • Reproducibility
  • Transgenesis

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