REPORT-SCS: minimum reporting standards for spinal cord stimulation studies in spinal cord injury

Raza N. Malik, Soshi Samejima, Claire Shackleton, Tiev Miller, Alessandra Laura Giulia Pedrocchi, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Chet T. Moritz, David Darrow, Edelle C. Field-Fote, Eleonora Guanziroli, Emilia Ambrosini, Franco Molteni, Parag Gad, Vivian K. Mushahwar, Rahul Sachdeva, Andrei V. Krassioukov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. Electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has emerged as a promising therapy for recovery of motor and autonomic dysfunctions following spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite the rise in studies using SCS for SCI complications, there are no standard guidelines for reporting SCS parameters in research publications, making it challenging to compare, interpret or reproduce reported effects across experimental studies. Approach. To develop guidelines for minimum reporting standards for SCS parameters in pre-clinical and clinical SCI research, we gathered an international panel of expert clinicians and scientists. Using a Delphi approach, we developed guideline items and surveyed the panel on their level of agreement for each item. Main results. There was strong agreement on 26 of the 29 items identified for establishing minimum reporting standards for SCS studies. The guidelines encompass three major SCS categories: hardware, configuration and current parameters, and the intervention. Significance. Standardized reporting of stimulation parameters will ensure that SCS studies can be easily analyzed, replicated, and interpreted by the scientific community, thereby expanding the SCS knowledge base and fostering transparency in reporting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number016019
JournalJournal of neural engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • clinical practice guideline
  • health planning guidelines
  • mandatory reporting
  • minimum information standards
  • practice guideline
  • spinal cord injury
  • spinal cord stimulation

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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