Repeated-Dose Oral N-Acetylcysteine in Parkinson's Disease

Pharmacokinetics and Effect on Brain Glutathione and Oxidative Stress

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with oxidative stress and decreased nigral glutathione (GSH), suggesting that therapies that boost GSH may have a disease-modifying effect. Intravenous administration of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant and GSH precursor, increases blood and brain GSH in individuals with PD and with Gaucher disease and in healthy controls. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of repeated high oral doses of NAC and their effect on brain and blood oxidative stress measures, we conducted a 4-week open-label prospective study of oral NAC in individuals with PD (n = 5) and in healthy controls (n = 3). Brain GSH was measured in the occipital cortex using 1H-MRS at 3 and 7 tesla before and after 28 days of 6000 mg NAC/day. Blood was collected prior to dosing and at predetermined collection times before and after the last dose to assess NAC, cysteine, GSH, catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) concentrations and the reduced-to-oxidized GSH ratio (GSH/ glutathione disulfide [GSSG]). Symptomatic adverse events were reported by 3 of the 5 subjects with PD. NAC plasma concentration–time profiles were described by a first-order absorption, 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Although peripheral antioxidant measures (catalase and GSH/GSSG) increased significantly relative to baseline, indicators of oxidative damage, that is, measures of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE and MDA) were unchanged. There were no significant increases in brain GSH, which may be related to low oral NAC bioavailability and small fractional GSH/GSSG blood responses. Additional studies are needed to further characterize side effects and explore the differential effects of NAC on measures of antioxidant defense and oxidative damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-167
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume58
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Fingerprint

Acetylcysteine
Glutathione
Parkinson Disease
Oxidative Stress
Pharmacokinetics
Glutathione Disulfide
Brain
Antioxidants
Malondialdehyde
Catalase
Gaucher Disease
Occipital Lobe
Substantia Nigra
Intravenous Administration
Lipid Peroxidation
Biological Availability
Cysteine
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • N-acetylcysteine
  • Parkinson's disease
  • antioxidant
  • clinical study
  • glutathione
  • magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • neurodegeneration
  • oxidative stress
  • pharmacokinetics
  • phase 2

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

@article{76d5c39b4c224be988436b46ab189de4,
title = "Repeated-Dose Oral N-Acetylcysteine in Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacokinetics and Effect on Brain Glutathione and Oxidative Stress",
abstract = "Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with oxidative stress and decreased nigral glutathione (GSH), suggesting that therapies that boost GSH may have a disease-modifying effect. Intravenous administration of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant and GSH precursor, increases blood and brain GSH in individuals with PD and with Gaucher disease and in healthy controls. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of repeated high oral doses of NAC and their effect on brain and blood oxidative stress measures, we conducted a 4-week open-label prospective study of oral NAC in individuals with PD (n = 5) and in healthy controls (n = 3). Brain GSH was measured in the occipital cortex using 1H-MRS at 3 and 7 tesla before and after 28 days of 6000 mg NAC/day. Blood was collected prior to dosing and at predetermined collection times before and after the last dose to assess NAC, cysteine, GSH, catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) concentrations and the reduced-to-oxidized GSH ratio (GSH/ glutathione disulfide [GSSG]). Symptomatic adverse events were reported by 3 of the 5 subjects with PD. NAC plasma concentration–time profiles were described by a first-order absorption, 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Although peripheral antioxidant measures (catalase and GSH/GSSG) increased significantly relative to baseline, indicators of oxidative damage, that is, measures of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE and MDA) were unchanged. There were no significant increases in brain GSH, which may be related to low oral NAC bioavailability and small fractional GSH/GSSG blood responses. Additional studies are needed to further characterize side effects and explore the differential effects of NAC on measures of antioxidant defense and oxidative damage.",
keywords = "N-acetylcysteine, Parkinson's disease, antioxidant, clinical study, glutathione, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, pharmacokinetics, phase 2",
author = "Coles, {Lisa D} and Tuite, {Paul J} and Gulin Oz and Usha Mishra and Reena Kartha and Sullivan, {Kathleen M.} and Cloyd, {James C} and Melissa Terpstra",
year = "2018",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/jcph.1008",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "58",
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journal = "Journal of Clinical Pharmacology",
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T2 - Pharmacokinetics and Effect on Brain Glutathione and Oxidative Stress

AU - Coles, Lisa D

AU - Tuite, Paul J

AU - Oz, Gulin

AU - Mishra, Usha

AU - Kartha, Reena

AU - Sullivan, Kathleen M.

AU - Cloyd, James C

AU - Terpstra, Melissa

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N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with oxidative stress and decreased nigral glutathione (GSH), suggesting that therapies that boost GSH may have a disease-modifying effect. Intravenous administration of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant and GSH precursor, increases blood and brain GSH in individuals with PD and with Gaucher disease and in healthy controls. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of repeated high oral doses of NAC and their effect on brain and blood oxidative stress measures, we conducted a 4-week open-label prospective study of oral NAC in individuals with PD (n = 5) and in healthy controls (n = 3). Brain GSH was measured in the occipital cortex using 1H-MRS at 3 and 7 tesla before and after 28 days of 6000 mg NAC/day. Blood was collected prior to dosing and at predetermined collection times before and after the last dose to assess NAC, cysteine, GSH, catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) concentrations and the reduced-to-oxidized GSH ratio (GSH/ glutathione disulfide [GSSG]). Symptomatic adverse events were reported by 3 of the 5 subjects with PD. NAC plasma concentration–time profiles were described by a first-order absorption, 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Although peripheral antioxidant measures (catalase and GSH/GSSG) increased significantly relative to baseline, indicators of oxidative damage, that is, measures of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE and MDA) were unchanged. There were no significant increases in brain GSH, which may be related to low oral NAC bioavailability and small fractional GSH/GSSG blood responses. Additional studies are needed to further characterize side effects and explore the differential effects of NAC on measures of antioxidant defense and oxidative damage.

AB - Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with oxidative stress and decreased nigral glutathione (GSH), suggesting that therapies that boost GSH may have a disease-modifying effect. Intravenous administration of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant and GSH precursor, increases blood and brain GSH in individuals with PD and with Gaucher disease and in healthy controls. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of repeated high oral doses of NAC and their effect on brain and blood oxidative stress measures, we conducted a 4-week open-label prospective study of oral NAC in individuals with PD (n = 5) and in healthy controls (n = 3). Brain GSH was measured in the occipital cortex using 1H-MRS at 3 and 7 tesla before and after 28 days of 6000 mg NAC/day. Blood was collected prior to dosing and at predetermined collection times before and after the last dose to assess NAC, cysteine, GSH, catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) concentrations and the reduced-to-oxidized GSH ratio (GSH/ glutathione disulfide [GSSG]). Symptomatic adverse events were reported by 3 of the 5 subjects with PD. NAC plasma concentration–time profiles were described by a first-order absorption, 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Although peripheral antioxidant measures (catalase and GSH/GSSG) increased significantly relative to baseline, indicators of oxidative damage, that is, measures of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE and MDA) were unchanged. There were no significant increases in brain GSH, which may be related to low oral NAC bioavailability and small fractional GSH/GSSG blood responses. Additional studies are needed to further characterize side effects and explore the differential effects of NAC on measures of antioxidant defense and oxidative damage.

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KW - phase 2

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