Fracture risk assessment based solely on BMD has limitations. Additional risk factors include the presence of a previous low-trauma fracture. We sought to quantify the fracture burden attributable to first versus repeat fracture. We studied 2179 men and 5269 women, 50-90 yr of age, participating in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). We included all low-trauma fractures that occurred over 8 yr of follow-up and classified these as either first or repeat clinical low-trauma fracture based on lifetime fracture history. Analyses were further stratified by sex, age, BMD risk categories (normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis), and vertebral deformity status. There were 128 fractures in men and 577 fractures in women. About 25% of fractures in men and 40% in women were repeat fractures. Just over one half of first fractures occurred in those with osteopenic BMD (58% in men, 54% in women). Just under one half of repeat fractures also occurred in those with osteopenic BMD (42% in men, 47% in women). The incidence of repeat fracture was, in most cases, nearly double, but sometimes nearly quadruple, the incidence of first fracture within a given BMD risk category in both men and women. Repeat fractures contribute substantially to overall fracture burden, and the contribution is independent of BMD. Furthermore, those with a combination of prior low-trauma fracture and another risk factor were at especially high risk of future fracture.
- Low-trauma fracture