Purpose Prior reports suggest that renin-angiotensin system inhibition may decrease nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence. We evaluated whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker treatment at initial surgery was associated with decreased recurrence or progression in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Using an institutional bladder cancer database we identified 340 patients with data available on initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Progression was defined as an increase to stage T2. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. Results Median patient age was 69.6 years. During a median followup of 3 years (IQR 1.3-6.1) 200 patients (59%) had recurrence and 14 (4.1%) had stage progression. Of those patients 143 were receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers at the time of the first transurethral resection. On univariate analysis factors associated with improved recurrence-free survival included carcinoma in situ (p = 0.040), bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (p = 0.003) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, p = 0.002) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.005) were less likely to experience tumor recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 45.6% for patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers and 28.1% in those not treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.009). Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer pathology (Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ) in 85 patients on bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy alone and in 52 in whom it was combined with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin alone (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.01-4.77, p = 0.04) showed worse recurrence-free survival compared to patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (stage Ta HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.98, p = 0.04). Conclusions Pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with improved outcomes in patients with bladder cancer. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor administration in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer cases should be studied in a prospective randomized trial.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.
- angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
- angiotensin receptor antagonists
- neoplasm recurrence
- renin-angiotensin system
- urinary bladder neoplasms