Renewable hydrogen and ammonia for combined heat and power systems in remote locations: Optimal design and scheduling

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Using hydrogen (H (Formula presented.)) and ammonia (NH (Formula presented.)) for renewable energy storage has the potential to enable economical power and heat supply with high renewable penetrations, especially in remote locations which are characterized by high energy costs. In this work we assess the economic competitiveness of renewable combined heat and power (CHP) systems in Mahaka HI, Nantucket MA, and Northwest Arctic Borough (NWAB) AK by optimally designing these systems for scenarios in which power and heat can be purchased over a range of historical energy prices as well as when 100% renewable supply is required. We use a combined optimal design and scheduling model which minimizes annualized net present cost by determining optimal technology selection and size simultaneously with optimal schedules for each period of a system operating horizon aggregated from full year hourly resolution data via a consecutive temporal clustering algorithm. We find that renewable generation meets at least 85% of power demands and 75% of heat demands under the lowest energy prices investigated. Higher conventional energy prices lead to increased renewable penetration which is facilitated by renewable NH (Formula presented.) as a seasonal energy storage medium, as are 100% renewable CHP systems. NH (Formula presented.) is used for power generation with heat cogeneration in all three locations, as well as directly for heating in NWAB. On an annual cost basis, NH (Formula presented.) -enabled 100% renewable CHP is only 3% more expensive in Mahaka and NWAB than systems which can purchase energy at the lowest prices, while it is 15% more expensive in Nantucket.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)719-738
Number of pages20
JournalOptimal Control Applications and Methods
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency‐Energy (ARPA‐E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE‐AR0000804; in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under the Advanced Manufacturing Office Award Number DE‐EE0007888; and in part by the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Funding Information:
Advanced Research Projects Agency ‐ Energy, DE‐AR0000804; Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, DE‐EE0007888; Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota Funding information

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • combined heat and power
  • energy storage
  • optimal design
  • optimal scheduling
  • power-to-x


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