Renal transplantation was carried out in 21 children ages 1 to 5 years. Eighteen received grafts from a living, related donor (LRD). Four children died, one following rejection, and three because of infection. Five children lost their initial grafts and two have received new transplants. Cumulative patients survival two and four years following LRD transplantation was 94% and 76%, respectively. This was similar to results found in children ages 6 to 14 years. Accelerated growth rates were seen in the first posttransplant years in those small children who were severely growth-retarded at the time of transplantation and who achieved normal graft function. However, only one of these children ultimately reached the tenth percentile for height for chronological age. The authors conclude that renal transplantation is warranted in the very young child with renal failure.