Remedying stereotype threat effects in spectator sports

Yonghwan Chang, Vicki Schull, Lisa A. Kihl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Attempts were made to explore the value of the multiple social identities approach in reducing the detrimental effects of stereotype threats in the context of spectator sports. A total of 150 females were recruited for a laboratory experiment. The following manipulations were implemented: (a) stereotype threat, (b) threat along with the implicit team identification activation, and (c) control. The results revealed that females in the threat condition showed a reduced level of psychological well-being; paradoxically, negative stereotypes positively influenced their self-esteem. The activation of implicit team identification alleviated the detrimental consequences of threat by inhibiting the spreading activation of harmful stereotypes regarding women in sports. The main theoretical frameworks of this study consisted of the process account of stereotype threat suggested in cognitive psychology. The authors attempted to offer a stronger understanding of the underlying mental processes of stereotype threat on women as well as an effective means to deal with its detrimental consequences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-184
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Sport Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by funds received from the Janet B. Parks NASSM Research Grant Program. The authors thank Ericka Copeland, Michael Kelly, and Yumeng Li for help with the data collection at various stages of the project. The authors would also like to thank the Senior Associate Editor Jeffrey James and the entire Journal of Sport Management review team for their outstanding guidance and support. Any remaining errors are our own.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Human Kinetics, Inc.


  • Gender stereotypes
  • Implicit bias
  • Public health
  • Team identification


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