Relief of pain and anxiety in pediatric patients in emergency medical systems

William T. Zempsky, Joseph P. Cravero, Jane F. Knapp, Thomas Bojko, Margaret A. Dolan, Karen S. Frush, Ronald A. Furnival, Steven E. Krug, Daniel J. Isaacman, Robert E. Sapien, Kathy N. Shaw, Paul E. Sirbaugh, Thomas J. Mancuso, Joseph P. Cravero, Rita Agarwal, Constance S. Houck, Zeev Kain, Lynne G. Maxwell, Robert D. Valley, Patricia J. Davidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

205 Scopus citations


Whether a component of a disease process, the result of acute injury, or a product of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure, pain should be relieved and stress should be decreased for pediatric patients. Control of pain and stress for children who enter into the emergency medical system, from the prehospital arena to the emergency department, is a vital component of emergency care. Any barriers that prevent appropriate and timely administration of analgesia to the child who requires emergency medical treatment should be eliminated. Although more research and innovation are needed, every opportunity should be taken to use available methods of pain control. A systematic approach to pain management and anxiolysis, including staff education and protocol development, can have a positive effect on providing comfort to children in the emergency setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1348-1356
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2004


  • Analgesia
  • Anxiety
  • Opiates
  • Pain
  • Stress
  • Topical anesthesia


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